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31 марта 2019 г.
Mothering Sunday in the United Kingdom
Mothering Sunday, sometimes known as Mother's Day, is held on the fourth Sunday of Lent. It is exactly three weeks before Easter Sunday and usually falls in the second half of March or early April.
Is Mothering Sunday a Public Holiday?
Mothering Sunday is not a public holiday. It falls on воскресенье 22 март 2020 г. and most businesses follow regular воскресенье opening hours in the United Kingdom.
What Do People Do?
Mother's Day, or Mothering Sunday, is now a day to honor mothers and other mother figures, such as grandmothers, stepmothers and mothers-in-law. Many people make a special effort to visit their mother. They take cards and gifts to her and may treat her to brunch, lunch or high tea in a cafe, restaurant or hotel. People who cannot visit their mother usually send gifts or cards to her.
An important part of Mothering Sunday is giving cards and gifts. Common Mother's Day gifts are cakes, flowers, chocolates, jewelry, and luxurious clothing. Some people do not give a physical gift, but choose to treat their mother or grandmother to a special meal, beauty treatment or fun outing.
Specially decorated Mother's Day cakes are available in many stores. In the days and weeks before Mothering Sunday, many schools, Sunday schools and children's organizations help their pupils to prepare a handmade card or gift for their mother.
Mothering Sunday is not a bank holiday in the United Kingdom. Public transport services run to their usual Sunday timetables. Cafes, restaurants and hotels may be fully booked a long time ahead, as many people treat their mother to a special meal on Mothering Sunday. Those wishing to eat in a restaurant on Mother's Day may need to reserve a table in advance.
Mothering Sunday was originally a time when people returned to the church, in which they were baptized or where they attended services when they were children. This meant that families were reunited as adults returned to the towns and villages where they grew up. In time, it became customary for young people who were working as servants in large houses, to be given a holiday on Mothering Sunday. They could use this day to visit their own mother and often took a gift of food or hand-me-down clothing from their employers to her. In turn, this moved towards the modern holiday, on which people still visit and take gifts to their mothers.
Traditionally, people observed a fast during Lent. Lent is the period from Ash Wednesday until Good Friday. During the Lent fast, people did not eat from sweet, rich foods or meat. However, the fast was lifted slightly on Mothering Sunday and many people prepared a Simnel cake to eat with their family on this day.
A Simnel cake is a light fruit cake covered with a layer of marzipan and with a layer of marzipan baked into the middle of the cake. Traditionally, Simnel cakes are decorated with 11 or 12 balls of marzipan, representing the 11 disciples and, sometimes, Jesus Christ. One legend says that the cake was named after Lambert Simnel who worked in the kitchens of Henry VII of England sometime around the year 1500.
St Patrick's Day occurs on March 17. It is a national holiday in Ireland and commemorates one of its patron saints, St Patrick. In the United Kingdom, it is celebrated in Irish pubs and in cities, such as Nottingham and London where many people with an Irish background live.
Is St Patrick's Day a Public Holiday?
St Patrick's Day is a public holiday in Northern Ireland, where it is a day off for the general population, and schools and most businesses are closed.
What Do People Do?
March 17 is a bank holiday in Northern Ireland. The degree to which people celebrate St Patrick's Day varies according to their religious and political affiliations. Those, who believe that Northern Ireland should remain part of the United Kingdom, do not generally celebrate the day. Those, who believe that Northern Ireland should become part of a United Ireland often celebrate St Patrick's Day. A large parade is held in Belfast but the level of public funding it receives depends on which political parties control the local council.
March 17 is just a normal day for many people in England, Scotland and Wales. They go to school or work as normal, and do not hold or attend any special events. Some may go for a drink in their local Irish pub at lunch time, after work or in the evening. However, in some towns and cities, particularly those with large Irish populations, parades and other large scale events are organized.
A weekend of celebrations is organized in Nottingham. These include a parade, children's workshops, an arts festival and performances by well-known Irish musicians. There is also a parade, attended by many thousands of people in Birmingham. An Irish festival lasting three days is held in Liverpool.
A whole week of celebrations is organized around St Patrick's Day in London. These include a parade and a festival held close to, but not always on, March 17. The parade visits Trafalgar Square and Covent Garden and the festival are held in Trafalgar Square, Leicester Square and Covent Garden. Together, the parade and festival allow people to experience many aspects of Irish culture including food, crafts, dance and music.
St Patrick's Day is not a public holiday in England, Wales or Scotland. In these three parts of the United Kingdom, schools, stores, businesses and other organizations are open as usual. Public transport systems run to their normal timetables. Local events, such as parades, can cause some local disruption to traffic. If you think this may affect you, it is a good idea to check the local press for details.
St Patrick's Day is a bank holiday in Northern Ireland. Schools and many organizations are closed. Stores and other businesses may be open or closed. Public transport systems may run on holiday timetables. There may be some local disruption to traffic due to parades or other events. The bank holiday falls on the following Monday if March 17 falls on a Saturday or Sunday.
St Patrick is one of Ireland's patron saints. He is believed to have died on March 17 in or around the year 493. He grew up in mainland Britain, but spent time in Ireland as a young man and later as a missionary. According to popular legend, he is buried under Down Cathedral in Downpatrick, County Down, and banished all snakes from Ireland. However, it is thought that there have been no snakes in Ireland since the last ice age. The “snakes” that St Patrick banished from Ireland, may refer to pagan worshipers of snake gods.
The date of St Patrick's Day is fixed as March 17. It is occasionally be moved by the authorities of the Catholic Church. This happened in 1940, so that the celebrations would not fall on Palm Sunday, and in 2008 to avoid Holy Monday, the last Monday before Easter Sunday. These changes do not often affect non-church celebrations. In particular, the bank holiday in Northern Ireland is still held on March 17 or the Monday afterwards if March 17 falls on a Saturday or Sunday.
St Patrick's Day was originally a religious occasion to mark the life and work of St Patrick. In 1903 it became a public holiday in the whole of Ireland. Pubs were not allowed to open on March 17 until the 1970s. It is only recently that St Patrick's Day has become a secular holiday.
Carnival/Shrove Tuesday is not a public holiday. Businesses have normal opening hours.
What Do People Do?
Shrove Tuesday in the United Kingdom is commonly known as Pancake Tuesday. It is a time for people to eat pancakes or participate in pancake races. Pancakes in the United Kingdom have some variations. For example Welsh-cakes, or light cakes are eaten in Wales while many pancakes in Gloucester are made with suet, a hard, white or pink fat made from beef or mutton.
People who take part in the pancake races carry thin pancakes in frying pans and must race to the finish, flipping pancakes as they go. The winner is the first to the finish line with a pancake that is not burnt. Some people may take time off work to participate in the pancake races.
The Olney Pancake Race is held at Olney in Buckinghamshire on Shrove Tuesday. It is one of the best known pancake races in the United Kingdom. The course for the Olney Pancake Race is about 415 yards long (about 379 meters). Competitors must wear traditional costumes that include a skirt, apron and head covering to run the race. Official Olney and Liberal prizes are then presented at a Shriving service in the parish church after the race is finished.
Shrove Tuesday is not a bank holiday in the United Kingdom so public life is not affected. However some local areas, such as the town of Olney, may temporarily close sections of streets or roads for pancake races.
Background and Symbols
According to Christian tradition, Lent commemorates the 40 days that Jesus spent in the wilderness so observant Christians marked this event by fasting. Many people used ingredients, such as eggs and milk, to prepare pancakes on Shrove Tuesday prior to the fasting period. Pancake races have been held in England for more than 500 years. Some sources suggest that they may have started in 1445.
One old English custom associated with Pancake Day was the annual pancake grease at London’s Westminster where schoolboys would fight for pancakes to gain monetary awards. Another tradition was Mischief Night, where some people would go into houses in disguise and ask for pancakes. A general article about Shrove Tuesday worldwide covers more information about its background and symbols.
People in Wales and those of Welsh origin celebrate the life of their patron saint, St David, and the Welsh culture on March 1 each year. Many people pin a daffodil or leek to their clothes and some, especially children, wear traditional costumes.
Is St. David's Day a Public Holiday?
St. David's Day is not a public holiday. Businesses have normal opening hours.